The heterocyclic ring is synthesized after the formation of the trans-fused carbon ring systems formed by a carbocation mediated cyclization. The remaining tertiary carbocation is quenched by a molecule of water. After deprotonation, the remaining hydroxy group is free to form the heterocyclic ring. This cyclization can occur either by attack of the alcohol oxygen onto the allylic carbocation formed by loss of diphosphate, or by an analogous SN2' like displacement of the diphosphate. This forms the core ring system A of forskolin.
According to Dariush Mozaffarian at Tufts, it’s not just excessive fructose, alcohol, trans fats, and BCAAs however. Both starch and sugars, in rapidly digested and high dose forms (aka the “refined carbs” as found in processed foods), are leading causes of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. While fructose goes directly to de novo lipogenesis (DNL), glucose does as well when quickly digested in larger doses (starch or sugar)! So look at overall starch and sugar injestion, not fructose per se. A baked potato is essentially 100% glucose - avoid. Small amounts of potato mixed in with veggies, plant oils, etc. are better, but still best to just avoid - so many other fruits and nonstarchy veggies to eat. For carb-rich foods: 1) think of them as small sides, never the main part of the plate, and 2) look at the ratio of carb to fiber as a good general rule. Look for <10:1 ratio: no more than 10 g of total carb for every 1 g of fiber; the lower the better.
During the surgery doctors removed liver tissue and they then then measured the levels of curcumin in the tissue. The results showed that the level of curcumin absorbed into the liver was not high enough to have any anticancer effect. The researchers suggested that future clinical trials of curcumin should focus on preventing bowel tumours. Several studies have shown that curcumin taken as capsules does get absorbed by the gut and is present in the blood. But the amount in the blood is small. <